Waikawau Bay Campground gets upgrade to conserve water

Source: Department of Conservation


Waikawau Bay Campground in the Coromandel will be closed from 1 March to 30 June 2019 for a $2.1Million upgrade on water facilities.

Date:  19 February 2019

The 1250 camper capacity campground will be closed to the public while 10 new ablution blocks, complete with point taps, showers and sink benches are installed. They will be fitted with automatic shut-off type tapware. The upgrade will conserve water usage by up to 60%.

DOC are upgrading a number of Northern Coromandel campgrounds. The investments which include new facilities will improve campers’ experience and accommodate the influx of visitors to the region over the busy summer season.

Operations Manager Nick Kelly says “the new facilities have been designed to conserve water across the campground. The measures not only reduce the amount of water waste, but also encourage visitors to drink the drinking water on site rather than bringing in bottled water. The empty bottles usually end up in local waste stations.”

“We want to improve the experience for our visitors as they can enjoy more facilities. It will be more convenient as they won’t have to walk so far or queue in lines”.

With the new abolition block visitors will have accessible and standard blocks with 20 toilets, 10 waterless urinals, 18 showers and 18 sink benches. A new campground wide treated water reticulation system will be installed, connected to new toilet blocks and various new additional water points throughout the camp. The water system will be supplied from new water storage tanks, also to be installed as part of the upgrade.

Kelly says that the upgrades will bring a well needed revamp to the facilities but will not alter the campsites rustic “back-to-basics” camping experience.

The funds for the upgrades involve similar upgrade works to Stony Bay, Fletcher Bay and Fantail Bay campgrounds. These areas will be closed to the public while the work is taking place. The public will be notified when it is underway.



Pygmy sperm whale dies at Raglan

Source: Department of Conservation


DOC and local iwi made the decision to euthanise a pygmy sperm whale, suspected of stranding itself, at Te Kopua near Raglan.

Date:  18 February 2019

The pygmy sperm whale washed up at Te Kopua, Raglan, on Sunday afternoon was “not comfortable.” This was how local iwi described the whale to DOC marine ranger Garry Hickman as he made his way to the site of the stranded whale with a small crew of DOC rangers.

DOC ranger Pearson Tukua waiting to attach a line to the whale from the coastguard boat
Image: Helen Gurley | DOC

It is suspected that this was the same whale that had been re-floated less than an hour earlier. A local resident who reported the first stranded whale, described markings near the tail which were consistent with the whale on the beach at Te Kopua.

DOC rangers, local iwi and others agreed that it would be kindest to euthanise the 3 m pygmy sperm whale.

“While most of us would have preferred an outcome where the whale swam away, it didn’t eventuate”, said Garry Hickman. “What was necessary had to be done, basically.”

As the tide came in, DOC staff gently nudged the whale out to sea. It returned and became exhausted, ejecting a reddish plume into the water when approached.

It was early evening when the whale was euthanised by DOC staff. By then the tide had come in enough for the Coastguard boat to almost reach the beach and throw DOC ranger Pearson Tukua a line. 

Pearson Tukua put a strop around the tail of the whale and the Coastguard boat towed the whale out to sea, “this was the best thing really because it can just decay naturally at sea.”

DOC would like to thank everyone who helped with the stranding. “We are grateful to the local resident who first reported it, and for the support of Whaingaroa iwi, Raglan police, the Coastguard and the members of the public who helped throughout the day to provide assistance to the whale”.



New scheme targets greenhouse gases

Source: Environmental Protection Authority

18 February 2019

The Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) is supporting international efforts to help cool the planet with new regulations coming into force today.

After 31 December 2019, a permit will be required for new and recycled bulk imports or exports of 18 different hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) gases, which are used in both refrigeration and air-conditioning units.

The new rules set limits on how much new bulk HFC can be imported, and encourage a move to alternative gases or HFCs with less potential to warm the atmosphere.

Dr Fiona Thomson-Carter, General Manager of our Hazardous Substances group says: “HFCs are potent greenhouse gases which warm the atmosphere and contribute to climate change.

“The new regulations keep us in line with the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, an international agreement adopted by New Zealand, to phase out certain gases which damage the Earth’s ozone layer, and affect our climate.

“If Kigali is successful, it’s estimated it could avoid warming of up to an estimated 0.5 degrees by the end of the century,” said Dr Thomson-Carter.

Applications for permits for 2020 are now open, and applications for grandparented eligibility – for importers of HFC’s between 2015-2017, close on 18 March 2019.

Read more about the changes here.


Education, income-generation for Rohingya refugees must be top priorities, say Oxfam, Save the Children & World Vision

Source: Oxfam New Zealand

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Education and income-generating opportunities must be made top priorities for the nearly 1 million Rohingya still languishing in the world’s largest refugee camp almost 18 months after fleeing violence and persecution in Myanmar, said three leading NGOs at the launch of a new UN funding plan for the crisis launched in Geneva today.

In a statement issued today, Oxfam, Save the Children and World Vision called on international governments to generously fund the 2019 Joint Response Plan (JRP) for the Rohingya Humanitarian Crisis. While the agencies applaud the ambitious new JRP—an appeal for US$ 920.5 million to assist 1.25 million people, including 909,000 Rohingya refugees and 336,000 host community members—they urge donors to emphasize education and income-generating activities when allotting funding.

The three agencies are also calling on donors and the Government of Bangladesh to ensure that humanitarian action in Bangladesh supports refugees and host communities to live in greater safety and dignity while meeting basic needs for food, clean water, and shelter. This means investing in education to equip children and youth with the skills they will need to create a more prosperous future in Myanmar when they can safely return there. It also means enabling refugees to become self-reliant today so they can provide for their families in dignity.

Rachel Wolff, World Vision’s Rohingya Refugee Crisis Response Director, said: “Education is not a luxury. It is a human right. Refugee children and parents tell us that education is a top priority for them. However, there is an overwhelming gap in access for children and adolescents.”

An estimated 700,000 children and youth age 3 to 24, including 200,000 from the host community, lack access to educational services. The situation for refugee adolescents and youth is particularly dire: only four in 100 have access to any form of education or life-skills and vocational training.

Thirteen-year-old refugee, Sirjil, worries that he’ll never go back to school. He says, “I was in fifth grade in Myanmar, but here I have nothing to do. Sometimes I go to the forest to collect firewood. Sometimes I go to the river. There is no opportunity for education. Tutors cost 300 taka a month (about $3.50). How can you pay that if you have no money?”

David Skinner, Team Leader (Designate) of Save the Children’s Rohingya Response said: “The Rohingya children currently in Bangladesh have had their rights abused by being forced to flee their homes in horrific circumstances. They have experienced things that no one—let alone a child—should experience. They should not suffer a double penalty by also being denied their right to education. The least the world can do is to ensure that they are not any more disadvantaged.”

In addition to insufficient access to education, the lack of income-generating opportunities renders Rohingya refugees dependent on aid, making them highly vulnerable to exploitation, especially children.

Dipankar Datta, Oxfam Bangladesh Country Director said: “Rohingya girls, especially when they hit puberty, face major obstacles in getting an education. The lack of options for Rohingya women to find work in the refugee camps makes it very hard for single mothers to support their children. Donors and the Government of Bangladesh should increase opportunities for women and girls to earn and learn, in order to help protect them from abuse and exploitation and be able to provide a better future for their families.”

Oxfam, Save the Children and World Vision are calling on the international community to support the Government of Bangladesh in making education for children and youth a central priority and to encourage initiatives that promote self-reliance and recovery for their parents.



Oxfam is providing vital aid, including clean water and food, to Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. So far, we’ve reached at least 266,000 people. Oxfam’s report, One year on: time to put women and girls at the heart of the response, found that more than a third of women surveyed by Oxfam and partner agencies said they did not feel safe or comfortable going to collect water or using toilets and shower cubicles. Oxfam is calling for 15 percent of new funds to be allocated specifically for gender sensitivities programming, including providing income-generating activities for women.

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Three reasons why plastics won’t save the oil industry

Source: Greenpeace New Zealand

As electric vehicles and cheap solar panels cut into the demand for petroleum-based fuels, an increasingly desperate oil industry has been banking on plastics to drive future demand growth.

Here are three reasons why the logic behind this is flimsier than a cheap plastic bag.

Bad press: The petrochemical industry has been aware of the general problems with plastic pollution since at least the 1960s and that the oceans are filling up with plastic garbage since at least the 1970s. It is only recently, however, that this has been in the media spotlight. Plastic has turned into a real monster. We used to see litter as annoying, and dirty, but not really as a menace to our health and to our planet. Now, images of turtles caught in plastic rings, or whales full of single-use cups and bags washing up on our shores are impossible to ignore. Reports of plastic in our drinking water and even in our poop are turning people off plastic. For far too long, corporations have put the onus on individuals to recycle away their trash, but people are starting to realize that industry needs to clean up the mess they created — and stop producing throwaway plastic for good.

Regulations on the way: All this attention is leading to bans on single-use plastics popping up all over the place. Last fall, the European Union took a historic stand against single-use plastic pollution banning some of the most problematic throwaway products, including cotton buds, straws, cutlery and food and beverage containers, and ensuring producers are held accountable for the costs of single-use plastic pollution. Plastic straws as well as foam take-out containers and cups will soon be banned from Vancouver as part of its zero-waste strategy. NZ has banned single-use plastic bags. It seems like only a question of time before most countries get on board and realise that in order to curb plastic pollution, we need to ban problematic and unnecessary single-use plastics, incentivise a shift to more sustainable product delivery systems and hold corporations accountable for the full lifecycle of their products. Industry beware. Even BP admits these new rules could reduce the future demand for oil, and they have a long history of lowballing the potential growth of alternatives to what they sell.

Successful action on climate change makes plastic more expensive: This one is a bit more convoluted, so bear with us (longer version here). When oil companies drill for oil or natural gas, they are extracting a whole range of chemicals. The most valuable components of oil are turned into gasoline, diesel or jet fuel, while the most valuable component of natural gas (methane) is used in power plants or for home heating. Plastics are made from the leftover bits that aren’t particularly good fuels. If these bits weren’t turned into disposable bags, bottles and cups, then industry would have to pay to dispose of them.

In short: plastic is cheap because we burn a lot of fossil fuels. If we burn less gasoline, diesel or natural gas (and meeting the Paris climate agreement requires phasing out fossil fuel use by mid-century), then there won’t be such a glut of waste products to turn into plastics. This becomes a virtuous cycle because as the cost of making plastic rises, alternatives become more attractive.

So by bringing your own reusable coffee mug, or bugging your local coffee shop or supermarket to ditch single-use plastics, you’re doing a lot more good than you think. You’re not only helping to save our oceans, you’re also telling oil companies hoping that the booming single-use plastic industry will pick up the slack and keep profits up, to think again.

Want to help end the Age of Oil?

Ask the big corporations to Break Free from Plastics.

This blog was co-authored by Philippa Duchastel de Montrouge, from Greenpeace Canada’s Oceans & Plastics campaign and adapted slightly for New Zealand.


Update on EQC’s response to Dunedin landslip Friday, February 15, 2019EQC has worked closely with Tonkin & Taylor to finalise and review geotechnical reports

Source: Earthquake Commission – EQC

Dunedin residents whose properties have been affected by the landslip have been contacted again this week by the Earthquake Commission to update them on the situation regarding their claims.  

Deputy Chief Executive Operations, Paul Jepson, says that EQC has worked closely with Tonkin & Taylor to finalise and review the geotechnical reports.

“Over the past few weeks, our team has been working to get an accurate picture of the damage and the cost of repairing the land. We have carried out a very thorough assessment of the geotechnical data that T&T have provided to us to enable us to determine the settlement for each homeowner.”

Mr Jepson says that EQC has been in contact with the homeowners to say that it expects the engineering report to be available to them next week and to provide a timeline for when they can expect to receive their EQC payment.

“Over the next couple of weeks, we will have our valuations completed and  finalised the settlements for each homeowner. We are aiming to provide these to homeowners by the first week in March.”

Mr Jepson says that EQC is also keeping the Dunedin City Council informed of its progress in managing the claims that it has received. 

“We are working with the Dunedin City Council so they can make an informed decision on whether the slip damage still poses a risk to homeowners and whether the houses are safe to occupy. This is a separate process from EQC’s assessments and homeowners who have been evacuated from their homes due to safety concerns should discuss this issue with the Council.

“We will continue to talk with each of the homeowners and provide them with information and support throughout the claim process.”

Background Information

What does EQC cover for landslips?

With landslips, EQC covers natural disaster damage to residential land with a property boundary, and includes:

  • The land under a home or outbuildings (e.g. garage or sheds);
  • The land within 8 metres of a home or outbuildings;
  • The land under or supporting the main access way, up to 60 metres from a dwelling, but not the driveway surfacing.

EQCover for land damage also extends to the following:

  • Bridges and culverts within the above areas, and
  • Some retaining walls and their support systems necessary for the support or protection of a home or insured land including the main access way within 60 metres of a house.

How much can EQC pay out?

EQCover pays the lesser of either:

  • The cost to repair the damaged land, or

The value of the damaged land, or the value of 4,000 square metres, or the value of the minimum-sized building site allowed in the area in which you live – whichever is the lower.


Fire risk being closely monitored across the top of the South Island with some tracks closed

Source: Department of Conservation


DOC is closely monitoring conditions and will keep areas open wherever it is safe to do so but will be closing some tracks as fire risks increase.

Date:  15 February 2019

DOC Northern South Island Regional Operations Director Roy Grose says the priority is keeping visitors safe. 

“DOC is working closely with Fire and Emergency NZ and local tour operators to ensure people entering conservation areas understand the risks and know what to do if fire occurs.

“We’ve closed some areas based on a range of risk factors including terrain and vegetation types, and DOC’s ability to evacuate and communicate with visitors.

“Making sure the public have good and accurate information is key. We are working hard to make sure the DOC website remains updated with any changes,” says Mr Grose.

In the Abel Tasman National Park, the Coastal Track remains open but there are closures to interior tracks and some campgrounds are closed due to extremely dry conditions. All hunting permits have been cancelled.

“We are confident that along the Abel Tasman Coastal Track we can manage the risk including our ability to evacuate people.

“If people see smoke they should head immediately to the beach. Dial 111 if you have coverage,” says Mr Grose.

The road through Molesworth is closed. Members of the public can still access Molesworth by joining a guided tour as concessionaires carry special firefighting equipment.

It is expected that a diversion will be put in place on the ridgeline of the Queen Charlotte Track between Kenepuru and Torea Saddles next week. The campsite at Moawhitu on D’Urville Island has already been closed and other remote campsites in the Sounds may also close next week.

In the Nelson Lakes, Teetotal has been closed to vehicle access and West Bay campground may be closed early next week.

“Everyone visiting tracks and campgrounds needs to be taking every precaution to guard against the fire risk that includes a total ban on lighting fires and no smoking. 

“Gas cookers should only be used in cooking shelters or on flat bare earth or rock surfaces”, says Mr Grose.

If you see smoke anywhere call 111.

Other key closures

Temporary track closures

  • Gibbs Hill Track
  • Falls River Track
  • Abel Tasman Inland Track

Temporary campsite closures

  • Tinline Great Walk Campsite
  • Anapai Great Walk Campsite
  • Mutton Cove Great Walk Campsite
  • Taupo Point and access track

Temporary hut/shelter closures

  • Castle Rock Hut
  • Awapoto Hut
  • Wainui Hut including access through Wainui Saddle and Birds Clearing
  • Holyoakes Shelter
  • Moa Park Shelter

The Caanan Campsite and surrounding tracks, eg Rameka, Harwoods hole and Rawhiti Cave remain open.



EPA gives go-ahead to extended disposal operation off Great Barrier Island

Source: Environmental Protection Authority

14 February 2019

A Decision-making Committee appointed by the Environmental Protection Authority has granted dredging and disposal company Coastal Resources Limited, a 35-year marine consent to dispose of dredged sediment off Great Barrier Island.

A Decision-making Committee appointed by the Environmental Protection Authority has granted dredging and disposal company Coastal Resources Limited, a 35-year marine consent to dispose of dredged sediment off Great Barrier Island.

Coastal Resources Limited already holds consent to dispose of 50,000 cubic metres of dredged sediment annually at the approved site, known as the Northern Disposal Area which sits 25 kilometres east of the Island in Exclusive Economic  Zone waters. In June 2018 it applied to the EPA to expand its operation to 250,000 cubic metres annually.

In granting the consent, the Decision-making Committee set conditions which will see Coastal Resources Limited carry out regular environmental monitoring of the site for the duration of the consent, and a requirement that the EPA, Biosecurity New Zealand, Auckland Council, Waikato Regional Council and Northland Regional Council be notified within 48 hours of any biosecurity risk.

In its final decision, Committee members Mark Farnsworth, (Chair), Basil Morrison, and Gillian Wratt found that:

  • The potential adverse effects on the environment, including cumulative effects, of any disposal activity will be restricted to the Northern Disposal Area and negligible beyond the boundary.
  • Any potential adverse effects on ‘Existing Interests’, including those on commercial fishing activities, will be negligible beyond the boundary.
  • The proposed operational procedures, mitigation measures and conditions will ensure that the biological diversity of marine species, ecosystems and processes in the Hauraki Gulf, and wider coastal and offshore environment, will be protected.
  • Coastal Resources Limited is required to comply with a number of other legislative regimes that relate to health and safety and environmental protection. These will further protect the environment and minimise any potential for adverse effects from the disposal activity.

This new consent replaces the current consent and will come into effect providing no appeal is lodged.

Map shows location of the Northern Disposal Area (NDA) within the Hauraki Gulf and in relation to the Coastal Marine Area and Hauraki Gulf Marine Park Boundary.



Scientists return from Antarctic voyage

Source: NIWA – National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research

After travelling almost 12,000km in the past six weeks, a group of scientists returns to Wellington at  the weekend with new knowledge about life in the Ross Sea of Antarctica.

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Humpback whale fluke on Scott Seamount. [Photo: Alan Hart]

NIWA’s research vessel Tangaroa docks on Saturday  morning after successfully completing research that covered all areas of the ecosystem from bacteria to whales.

The 21 scientists, supported by 19 crew, have been focusing on gathering baseline information to monitor the year-old Ross Sea Marine Protected Area (MPA). New Zealand scientists were joined on the voyage by marine experts from China, France and Italy.

Voyage leader and NIWA scientist Dr Richard O’Driscoll said good weather and a general lack of sea ice enabled science work to continue uninterrupted.

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NIWA’s research vessel Tangaroa in sea ice. [Photo: Diana Macpherson]

“Remarkably we did not lose any time due to rough weather while south of 60°S.“

Dr O’Driscoll says the amount of work achieved will benefit New Zealand and global science communities.

“We are working with other nations within the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), to establish a long-term monitoring programme inside the Ross Sea MPA. It’s the largest MPA in the world (covering more than over a million square kilometres) and represents a major contribution to global marine protection.

“New Zealand has a commitment to playing a leading role in monitoring the MPA, and this voyage is a key contribution. Data collected on the voyage will also build on New Zealand’s reputation for research on atmosphere/ocean circulation processes. By increasing our understanding of Antarctic and Southern Ocean responses to past climate conditions, it will allow improved modelling of future changes.”

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NIWA scientist Pablo Escobar-Flores (left) and Tangaroa crewman Phil Bignell (right) carry a large toothfish before releasing it. [Photo: David Bowden]

Other voyage highlights included:

  • Tangaroa has travelled more than 11,800km since leaving Wellington on January 8.
  • On February 4 the ship reached its furthest point south at 76° 30’ and 165° W of the voyage – just 30km shy of the most south Tangaroa has ever been.
  • Almost 33 hours of video and 8000 still images were collected to look at animals living on the sea-bed.
  • About 4700 samples have been preserved and must be cleared through biosecurity tomorrow.
  • 36 whale sightings were logged, made up of more than 190 individual animals including humpback, minke, blue fin and killer whales.
  • Six moorings were retrieved and the six deployed. These will continue to collect data until they are picked up in 2021.
  • 227 gear deployments, including 31 buoys to monitor ocean condition; 35 underwater camera runs down to a maximum depth of 1450 m; 78 plankton tows; 41 fish trawls; and 34 drops with a conductivity temperature and depth (CTD) profiler, which collected nearly 700 litres of water from the surface to 500 metres.
  • The trawl catch of 1946 kg was made up of 110 species, including 56 types of fish. Rare and unusual fish species included whale-fish, snail-fish, and big-scale fish, which are being brought back for identification at Te Papa. Three large Antarctic toothfish with estimated weights of 30-40 kg were tagged and released.


Susan Pepperell, Senior Media Advisor
Ph 04 386 0473
Mob 027 839 0730


Over 100 ducklings make for a loved up Valentine’s Day

Source: Department of Conservation


DOC rangers and volunteers have been given a lovely Valentine’s Day gift with more than 100 whio ducklings sighted on a recent survey in the Whirinaki Te Pua-a-Tane Conservation Park in the central North Island.

Date:  14 February 2019

DOC Ranger Jacob De Vries says a recent survey confirmed at least 107 ducklings had hatched on the rivers in the park. “Considering there are only an estimated 3000 whio left in the world, over 100 whio chicks in one security site is an outstanding result.”

The work to survey the ducklings wouldn’t have been possible without some help. Six volunteers along with Beau the detection dog and his handler DOC ranger Andrew Glaser all spent long stints wading through the crystal-clear and ice-cold rivers.

Volunteer John Black was so committed to counting ducklings he even spent New Year’s Eve at Central Whirinaki Hut. “Whio are masters of disguise who look just like stones in the river until they move. Seeing new chicks is really rewarding – they are little fluff balls that never stray too far away from their parents,” said John.

The good results can be attributed to the increasing number of adult breeding pairs in Whirinaki Forest and the support of Genesis, which through ongoing support is enabling DOC to double the number of whio breeding sites, boost pest control efforts and enhance productivity and survival for these rare native ducks.

Genesis General Manager Corporate Relations and Whio Forever committee member, Emma-Kate Greer, said that these results show real progress is being made in restoring whio numbers in predator protected security sites. “What an amazing Valentine’s Day present for this hard-working DOC team. These whio ducklings are living proof that the team’s diligence, care and energy in protecting this species is paying off.”

There are currently 38 adult breeding pairs, and hundreds of kilometres of traplines in Whirinaki to protect vulnerable nesting mothers and ducklings from the threat posed by introduced pest species such as rats and stoats. Without pest control, nest cameras show that nearly 95% of female whio are killed while sitting on their nests.

In addition to trapping, the Whirinaki also benefits from regular pest control operations. Because the Whirinaki Forest is an ideal environment for whio, when pests are managed the population grows rapidly. As these ducklings grow-up they may travel to adjacent forests and repopulate areas that no longer have whio, further helping the species’ long-term success.

The Whirinaki Forest is one of the best places in the world to see whio. The majority of the park’s easy tramping tracks follow rivers and pass directly through the security site. In particular, the Whirinaki Track and the Moerangi Track offer overnight experiences, backcountry huts, and plenty of opportunity to see whio.

Background Information on whio


  • Whirinaki Te Pua-a-Tāne Conservation Park is one of eight ‘whio security sites’ in New Zealand
  • 1800 DOC200 traps protect the Whirinaki Whio Security Site; the traps are checked every two weeks
  • Whirinaki Forest is home to 51 endangered species including short-tailed bats, kaka, kakariki, kiwi, and rare plants
  • Whirinaki Forest has 155km of tramping tracks, nine backcountry huts, and two MTB tracks
  • Whirinaki is jointly managed by DOC with Te Runanga o Ngati Whare
  • The whio is a threatened species of native duck that is only found in New Zealand’s fast flowing waters. Featured on New Zealand’s $10 note and with an estimated nationwide population of less than 3000 birds, whio are rarer than kiwi
  • Whio are adapted to live on fast-flowing rivers so finding whio means you will also find fresh, fast-flowing water with a good supply of plants and underwater insects
  • This makes whio important indicators of ecosystem health – they only exist where there is quality fresh water and an abundance of life

Whio Forever

  • Genesis has a strong historic association with whio through the Tongariro Power Scheme and in 2010 this association grew through the establishment of Whio Awareness Month (March).
  • Today, Genesis and DOC continue their partnership through the Whio Forever Project, which aims to secure the future of whio in the wild and ensure New Zealanders understand and value whio in our rivers.
  • The support of Genesis and the work of DOC has enabled the Whio Recovery Plan to be implemented

Conservation issue

  • The whio are predated by stoats, ferrets and cats with the largest impact during nesting time when eggs, young and females are vulnerable, and also when females are in moult and can’t fly.
  • Extensive trapping can manage these predators and work in key whio habitats by DOC and Genesis on the Whio Forever Project has already seen an increase in whio numbers
  • Whio cannot be moved to predator-free islands like other species because of their reliance on fast-flowing rivers.
  • Pairs occupy approximately 1 km of water – so they need a lot of river to sustain a large population and they fiercely defend their territories, which makes it difficult to put them with other ducks in captivity.
  • They are susceptible to flood events which, destroy nests, fragment broods and wash away their valued food source.