Massey researchers to present at World Conference on Health Promotion

Source: Massey University

Felicity Ware from Te Pūtahi a Toi: School of Māori Knowledge, will have an exhibit at the World Conference on Health Promotion, and present on teaching whānau how to weave their own wahakura – woven harakeke basket for babies to sleep in.

Massey University staff and students will be well represented at the 23rd World Conference on Health Promotion, to be held in Rotorua from Sunday.

The theme for this year’s conference is Waiora: Promoting Planetary Health and Sustainable Development for All. The conference, which is run by the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE), is held every three years, around the world. This is the first time New Zealand has hosted the conference, which will involve up to 3000 delegates from New Zealand, Australia, the Pacific Islands, the wider Asia-Pacific region, Europe, Americas, Middle East and Africa. The conference will have a strong indigenous component around Māori and Pasifika and will be the biggest event ever held in Rotorua.

The College of Health has more than 17 staff and PhD students presenting, including College of Health Pro Vice-Chancellor Professor Jane Mills.

Dr Victoria Chinn will present her research, entitled Women unveiling their health potential: A way forward for empowering health promotion interventions.

“Health promotion adopts a positive, holistic, participatory and empowerment focused approach to health, yet many women’s health programmes set weight-loss as the primary goal for success, which has not only proven to be largely ineffectivebut also damaging to women’s health,” Dr Chinn says.

“This study introduces a health programme that aligns to the values of health promotion and with prospects to create sustainable change conducive to women’s health. The programme, Next Level Health, applies participatory methods for women to determine their own goals across six key health areas: physical activity, sleep, nutrition, eating behaviour, stress management and self-care, with the core aim of gaining more control over their health.”

Sixty women took part in the programme, which ran over a six-month period, and included a twelve-month follow up. Each month the participants met to reflect on the goals they had set, and to set new ones, with the aim to progress their self-defined goals by the end of the programme. Data was collected via a series of questionnaires at the beginning of the programme, at six months and at 12 months.

“Women progressed across an average of 29 levels, out of a possible 36, and significantly gained greater control over their health. The programme enabled women to create health routines in their everyday lives; broaden their health perspective to consider physical, mental and social dimensions as relevant to their health; improve their functional, interactional and critical health literacy; and more fully realise their potential for health in a process of self-actualisation,” Dr Chinn says.

“These findings suggest a holistic approach to health may be more effective for sustainable behaviour change focused on a balance of positive health behaviours rather than a weight-loss focused approach.”

Felicity Ware, Ngāpuhi, a lecturer from Massey’s Te Pūtahi a Toi: School of Māori Knowledge, will have an exhibit at the conference, and present on teaching whānau how to weave their own wahakura – woven harakeke basket for sleeping baby (pēpi).

“Wahakura are individual hand-made safe sleep spaces for pēpi woven out of harakeke, using the tradition of rāranga [weaving]. They were developed as a contemporary kaupapa Māori innovation to safe co-sleeping, particularly for Māori who have a disproportionately high rate of Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy [SUDI]. Wahakura also promote bonding, responsive parenting, breastfeeding and smokefree environments,” she says.

“Wahakura embody the significant connection between the Pā Harakeke [plantation] as a model of whānau development and te whare tapu o te tangata [womb]. The atua Hineteiwaiwa, goddess of female arts, presides over both, strengthening the link between harakeke, weaving, wahakura, and raising tamariki [children]. Wahakura have their own mana [spiritual vitality] and mauri [physical vitality] inherited from Papatūānuku, Hineteiwaiwa and the whānau and weavers involved,” Ms Ware says.

“Teaching whānau how to make their own wahakura is empowering them to literally and symbolically create their own pathways to wellbeing. It contributes to the revitalisation of Māori culture, positive cultural identity, and mana motuhake/rangatiratanga [self-determination], especially important for Māori who have been displaced or marginalised.”

The waikawa weaving style was developed as the most simplest version in order to teach those new to weaving how to create their own, she says. “Wahakura take about two full days to make from harvest to finish for a new weaver. Once dried, quality assured and fitted with a breathable mattress, a cotton sheet and a natural fibre blanket, wahakura are safe to sleep babies from newborn until about four to six months, and can be re-used as long as they meet quality standards.”

Massey University staff and students presenting at the conference:

Associate Professor Mary Breheny – Importance of early lives to inequalities in older age (research presentation)

Dr Victoria Chinn – Women unveiling their health potential: A way forward for empowering health promotion interventions (research presentation)

Dr Beven Erueti – Wairuatanga:  Integrating the fourth article of Te Tiriti o Waitangi into health promotion and health education (workshop)

Dr Geoff Kira – “Sometimes I just didn’t have the money”: Removing the barriers to consuming more fruit and vegetables. An exploratory study (research presentation), and Promoting Indigenous food sovereignty for enhancing food security, nutrition and health equity (symposium)

Professor Marlena Kruger – Dietary patterns associated with adiposity and bone mineral densityin older urban black South African women (research presentation)

Adjunct Dr Mat Walton – Implementing a health promotion initiative to achieve systems change: lessons from evaluation of Healthy Families NZ (research presentation) and Using Developmental Evaluation to inform systems change for health (oral presentation)

Professor Jane Mills – What can we do to address health challenges faced by communities? (sub-plenary session)

Christine Roseveare – Engaging public health students with equity: An innovative approach from an on-line New Zealand undergraduate course (oral presentation)

Sudesh Sharma and Associate Professor Rachel Page – Tobacco and alcohol use are playing critical role in the interaction of social determinants of non-communicable diseases in Nepal: a systems perspective (research presentation) and Health and social system challenges to tackle social determinants of non-communicable diseases in Nepal: a systems analysis (research presentation)

Dr Christina Severinsen and Angelique Reweti – Wai ora: Connecting tangata (people), hauora (health), and taiao (environment) through participation in waka ama (film screening and research presentation)

Professor Christine Stephens – The importance of housing to health: A Capabilities Approach to unequal trajectories of healthy ageing (research presentation)

Dr Agnes Szabo – Alcohol use across the life course: Influences on health in old adulthood (research presentation)

Dr Agnes Szabo, Associate Professor Mary Breheny and Professor Christine Stephens – Environments for health equity in older age: Taking a life course perspective (symposium) and Advocating for health equity (moderated discussion)

Chris Vogliano – Can leveraging agrobiodiverse food systems help reverse the rise of malnutrition while providing climate change resilience in Pacific Small Island Developing States? (research presentation)

Felicity Ware – Wahakura (art) and Wahakura wānanga (weaving workshop – oral presentation)


The Māori language is on a roll in this district, if enrolments at EIT are anything to go by.

Source: Eastern Institute of Technology – Tairāwhiti

11 mins ago

Karen Albert (Student Support Advisor) at Te Whatukura

Numbers at EIT’s Te Whatukura School of Māori Studies in Tūranganui a Kiwa and at EIT’s Ruatoria learning centre have reached the point where the institute is having to beef up resources at both centres.

The number of enrolments for part time studies has increased by nearly a third this year, following a similar increase last year.

As well the numbers studying fulltime are also growing steadily, with a big uptake for the new Level 5 Diploma, which is the first part of the three year degree.

Numbers enrolled for evening classes in Tūranganui a Kiwa were so great this year that the class had to be split, said lecturer Maria Wynyard.

“We used to have one evening class a week on Wednesday and now we have them on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday,” she said.

In Ruatoria the newly-introduced classes in te reo Māori were full. The number of enrolments was growing by the week with people traveling from Te Araroa and Ihungia to Tokomaru Bay to take part.

“Our campus carpark has been full because of it – people are wanting to learn their own language. We have got teachers, mothers and hauora workers, and some older people who grew up in the days when speaking te reo was discouraged.

“These people can listen to it competently but speaking it is a different story,” said Maria.

“Our job is to break down those barriers and they are learning very quickly.”

Maria Wynyard is working with te reo tutor Ngaire Keelan to teach the Ruatoria classes, travelling to Gisborne two days a week to teach on the degree programme at Te Whatukura.

EIT was in the process of recruiting another Māori language tutor to join the existing team of seven.

In Gisborne students taking up te reo Māori studies were largely Pakeha, but included all ethnicities, including Asian and South American.

Some were teachers or Government workers who had taken a year’s sabbatical leave to learn the language.

Lecturers were starting to see students progressing their studies to degree level, including one teacher who was combining her studies with fulltime work.

EIT staff are using modern second language learning technologies, modified by the late Ngoi Pewhairangi – a prominent Māori language and culture educator from Tokomaru Bay – for local use.

“We do everything we can to recruit and retain the most qualified and experienced staff,” says Maria.

“They are achieving faster learning te reo Māori students using New Age methods.”

She believes there has been a shift in many workplaces to embrace te reo as part of their culture, encouraging staff to learn conversational Māori and greetings and use them in every day business.

There has been a similar resurgence in Hawke’s Bay, where EIT has been asked to teach te reo Māori courses for the Hastings District Council.


Massey researcher receives Fulbright to study indigenous enterprise

Source: Massey University

Dr Jason Mika.

Dr Jason Mika from the School of Management has received this year’s Fulbright-Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga Scholar Award, which will see him visit Stanford University and the University of Arizona.

The Fullbright-Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga Scholar Award is for a New Zealand academic, artist or professional to lecture or conduct research at a United States institution in the field of indigenous development.

Dr Mika says he is “humbled and honoured” to receive the award and is looking forward to the once-in-a-lifetime experience.

He will research the design of effective enterprise assistance for indigenous entrepreneurs. He has extensively researched Māori enterprise assistance in New Zealand and is keen to compare what works in the United States.

“I’m hoping to get some new ideas about the kinds of theories and programmes that have worked well, to see what we can learn that may help Māori entrepreneurs,” he says. “But I also want to share knowledge and collaborate with international researchers as we will have a lot to learn from each other.”

Centres for innovation and indigeous studies

Dr Mika has chosen to visit Stanford because it is associated with one of the world’s most established entrepreneurial ecosystems.

“Everybody has heard of Silicon Valley but how inclusive is it for indigenous entrepreneurs? I want to know if they are well supported and whether or not are part of that system,” he says.

The University of Arizona was chosen by Dr Mika because it is home to the world-leading Native Nations Institute. 

“The researchers there are experts in indigenous leadership and governance and they have been effective at supporting Native nations to realise their own economic independence and self-determination.” 

Dr Mika’s award is one of seven grants made by Fulbright New Zealand in 2019. The awards are unique in that they are available for research in any field but are united in the common goal to forge international collaboration. 

Dr Mika will be honoured alongside the six other award recipients at the annual Fulbright Award Ceremony in June. He will then travel to Arizona in July to visit the Native Nations Institute before heading to Stanford University.

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Ka Mate – a commodity to trade or taonga to treasure?

Source: Massey University

“We can’t continue to turn a blind eye to the disrespectful ways that haka are used for commercial purposes,” Jeremy Hapeta says.

As we approach the ninth Rugby World Cup, hosted by Japan in September-November later this year, Massey University researchers are recommending more protections for the use of haka in marketing, both here and overseas.

Lead researcher Jeremy Hapeta, (Ngāti Raukawa Ngāti Huia, Ngāti Pareraukawa), and colleagues Dr Farah Palmer, (Ngāti Maniapoto, Waikato) and Dr Yusuke Kuroda, carried out a literature review which drew upon existing research, legislation and recent marketing campaigns. Additionally, the study involved interviews with pukengā (experts) to gather pūrākau (narratives) from their informed perspectives and reflections of the commercialisation of this particular Māori ritual in sport.

Ka Mate, composed by Ngāti Toa chief Te Rauparaha, has received global exposure due mostly to its adoption as a pre-match ritual by the All Blacks. Increasingly, the two entities have become symbols of New Zealand national identity and pride, but not without controversy and debate.

“Haka can be used for celebrations, protests, acknowledgement and an expression of identity that may align with nationality, ethnicity, sub-culture, a movement or a brand,” Mr Hapeta says. “The benefits of pūrākau embedded within ngā taonga tuku iho [cultural treasures] such as haka however, tend to be absent in sport marketing.”

Mr Hapeta would like New Zealand Rugby (NZR) to play a leading role in guiding global corporations and sponsors in relation to accessing and attributing the haka to the appropriate iwi and people.

“We can’t continue to turn a blind eye to the disrespectful ways that haka are used for commercial purposes. While the NZR appear to be responding with the establishment of a kaitiaki group for haka within the All Blacks, a pūkenga for the Māori All Blacks and organisation, the adoption of a Respect and Inclusion programme, and a cultural subcommittee of the New Zealand Māori Rugby Board, more still needs to be done to protect the mana of the haka as a taonga.”

The researchers spoke with members of three iwi who are closely associated with Ka Mate, namely Ngāti Toa, Ngāti Raukawa and Ngāti Tūwharetoa, as well as critically reviewing literature and legislation from a kaupapa Māori perspective.

“The kōrerorero [discussions] were guided by open-ended questions related to: how mātauranga [knowledge] of haka were handed on to these experts, how Māori and wider New Zealand society are passing on knowledge of haka today, their aspirations for this knowledge to be handed on to future generations and finally the use of haka in sport marketing,” Mr Hapeta says.

“Haka, especially Ka Mate, have been associated with global brands and corporations aligned with rugby teams and events. Our review explored sport marketing, focusing on Ka Mate and the All Blacks, alongside contemporary use, and misuse of Ka Mate, by transnational agencies and sponsors.”

WAI 262 and the Haka Ka Mate Attribution Act

In 1991, six tribes took a major claim to the Waitangi Tribunal, in regards to the indigenous flora and fauna and Māori cultural intellectual property. It is within the claim, commonly known as WAI 262, that Ngāti Toa sought to cease the exploitation and regain some control over Ka Mate.

Findings and recommendations from the WAI 262 report set a precedent, and it was closely followed by the Haka Ka Mate Attribution Act. The Government acknowledged the importance of Ka Mate to Ngāti Toa and passed legislation requiring attribution to Ngāti Toa, including commercial uses of Ka Mate.

“It’s important to note that the Act is New Zealand-based legislation and doesn’t apply offshore,” Mr Hapeta adds. “Our research identified three haka representations that came after the Act, and did not attribute the haka to Ngāti Toa, which was deeply disappointing.”

Jacomo’s “Hakarena” campaign

In a pre-tournament Rugby World Cup (RWC) 2015 promotion, former English rugby captain Matt Dawson featured, along with several support actors, in an online video for British men’s clothing brand Jacomo, that parodied Ka Mate. They blended music and moves from the hit Spanish dance song Macarena with Ka Mate lyrics and gestures to create a hybrid dance called the “Hakarena”.

At the time, Ngāti Toa executive director Sir Matiu Rei said: “This video is disrespectful and belittling to our cultural performance, the All Blacks and Māori people … I feel for New Zealanders, not just Māori, I feel sorry for anyone who has to watch it.”

Heineken’s “Fight or Flight” competition

Heineken were a major sponsor of the 2015 RWC hosted by England. The company produced a promotional video, using customers in a Dublin bottle store. The clip showed customers flipping a coin for a chance to win tickets to the RWC final. Following the coin toss, they were surprised by three actors (who appeared to be of Māori heritage), who performed a generic haka. The actors then challenged the customers to perform their best haka to win the tickets – resulting in amateur performances of Ka Mate.

“Whether intentional or not, the use of haka for commercial gain, performed with little understanding of the nuances and meanings of this cultural ritual, and distributed to the public without appropriate acknowledgement, disrespects the intended spirit of the WAI 262 and the Act,” Mr Hapeta says.

Wozniaki’s haka lesson

The most recent example of strategic haka use by sport sponsors was at the 2016 ASB Classic in Auckland. Organisers secured several high-profile All Blacks who provided top international women’s tennis star Caroline Wozniaki with a personal haka lesson. This story was covered by New Zealand media, appearing on the national 6pm news bulletin.

“In the footage, Wozniaki was encouraged to poke out her tongue during the performance – a practice inconsistent with tikanga Māori [customs], because wāhine [women] do not normally protrude their tongue,” Mr Hapeta says.

“This scenario demonstrated an example of corporate sponsors dislocating a distinctive local ritual from its cultural meaning. Despite this happening in New Zealand, where the Act applies, there was no verbal or written attribution to Ngāti Toa or Te Rauparaha in the news story.”

The paper, entitled KA MATE: A commodity to trade or taonga to treasure? was published in the MAI Journal last year.

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